Hybrid City & Knowledge Cluster as Web Interface of Web 3.0 & Cloud Computing & Semantic ?


Is it this the next one Internet Killer Application?

Knowledge Cluster is emerging rapidly as the next step in the quest for sustainable growth and economic development for cities, regions, country, and even corporations and global virtual organization. Hybrid City is an urban development that employs information technologies to sense, analyze, integrate and react intelligently to the activates of the City across utilities and city services, the environment, people, and local industry thereby creating a better place to live, work and run a business.

  • What will be the Hybrid City?
  • How the new urban actors act and react to design it?
  • Can they help to build a better city?
  • What area will the study cover?
  • Who will Benefit and why?
  • Where the credentials pack of the team and affiliates?
  • Is it a new economy embedded in this new killer application?

In my opinion, Hybrid City is a geographic region, product / service / industry segment and community of practice in which knowledge flows from the point of origin (+1) to the point of need / opportunity (=?).

As the knowledge-based economy expands, stakeholders are finding this to be appealing transformational pathway to a prosperous, diversified, and abundant future.

Different roles in a knowledge driven city interact to enable growth and development:

1. Inventors & Entrepreneurs

a.     Managers

b.     +1=?

2.     Super Mentors

a.     Professor

b.     Opinion leader

c.     Coach

d.     +1=?

3.     Work Force

a.     Scientist

b.     Engineers

c.     Technician

d.     +1=?

4.     Individual Achievers

a.     Athlete

b.     Artist

c.     Author

d.     +1=?

5.     +1=?

a.     +1=?

To identify key issues relating to the “Hybrid City”, I have articulated three main issues, which mainly refer to the creation, use and appropriation of mobile and locative media as well as other web-based applications involving location-based activities:

  • Real depth of audience engagement;
  • The radical potential of these new technologies and the quality of existing examples of interventions;
  • Context-aware systems which reveal patterns of activity of any sort not perceptible to humans and the provision of these data to all;
  • The process of creating maps, emerging cartographies, design aspects and politics;
  • The role of Situationists’ theory and practice on the creation of such interventions;
  • The use of ubiquitous computing systems in creating hybrid spatial experiences, in the form of connections/bridges between the real and the virtual;
  • The politics determining who has access to these environments and how;
  • The potential for a passage from the public to the common through the use of these media;
  • The potential of multi-user location-based activities for generating new forms of social interaction;
  • The concept of “hybrid space”, the spatial character of the concept of “hybridity”, the “hybrid city” and its definition to the urban realm;

The topic of the “hybrid city” is timely and important. Many projects and events have been taking place around the world. The discussions today are energized and activated by the overlay of several issues that carry a new urgency: locative media and technologies, social networking, the-city-as-display-and-interface, sustainability and ecological awareness, globalization, and also a new sense of empowerment to affect the design of cities via algorithmic design, computer controlled fabrication, new materials, and the addition of increasing “intelligence,” both local and remote, to what was previously inert form. Of course, one can’t have new cities without new citizens, so one of the major factors is the coming of age of a new population that has assumed ubiquitous connectivity and computation from birth. The rise of this group has meant that a dizzying forward momentum is rapidly replacing the inertia of resistance that characterized much of the parent generation by the offspring generation.

Now, to the term of “hybrid” and the hope for converging upon a definition. A “hybrid” is a creature that is the offspring of two related but separate species but which, critically, is unable to reproduce further on its own. Hybrids are sterile, most often. This month, in the news, there was word of a new “zedonk” being born in captivity at the Chestatee Wildlife Preserve in Dahlonega, Georgia. The “zedonk” is a hybrid of a zebra and a donkey. It is also known as a “zonkey” or, more to the point, a “zebra mule.” Mules of various kinds cannot reproduce. For all their utility to humans, we must bring together horses and donkeys to make them. Other hybrids like “ligers” and “tions” suffer the same fate.

A “hybrid city” thus suggests that some combinations may be attractive and useful. What would be preferable, I think, is not to settle on a term, but to try to understand what principles might be necessary to restore and provide for richness and ever-growing diversity.

This isn’t just a semantic quibble about this word. The difference is real and structural, and hinges on the specific and real construction of openness. To give a single example that can ground that I mean this technically, let me add this: we all know about genetic algorithms by now. A genetic algorithm may evolve by mutating its own genes, but, unless it actually has the ability to extend its own genome (that is to say, modify and extend the set of genes whose values are able to mutate), it can’t produce anything but variations of the same kind — it can never produce new kinds, or new species. A closed genome is an industrial-age artifact, focused on optimization. What is needed is a post-industrial construct able to alter itself as it proliferates.

Not fixating on a closed hybridity, and instead focusing on the provision of conditions and flexible, mutating structures that ensured the evolution of new species of urbanism and urban life would be a start.

The next issue, I think, has to do with how we still exist within structures and value systems that can produce variety without producing difference, and, especially positive difference, by multiple definitions. Guy Debord pointed this out in “The Society Of The Spectacle,” and, as far as I can tell, we have yet to extricate ourselves from that maze. Whether we have 500 channels of unwatchable television or a trillion documents online does not matter if everything is motivated by an indifference to quality, and a subjugation of every effort at qualitative assessment to a simple-minded and perceptually and intellectually impoverished logic of mere counting — more is better, and that’s that. To put it plainly — it is not that we cannot build better cities — it is that we don’t have the will to, or, to strike more deeply, the value system for. Cities are mirrors, and we already have the cities that are the perfect reflections of our collective values. If we wish to change them, we need to address the value systems by which we make urban decisions.

The question then shifts to a multi-headed problem: how to provide a constructive critique of our global culture and its values, how to assert positive and constructive alternatives, and how to literally structure our poetic and technological efforts to realize those alternatives. The problem I find the most vexing is the problem of values. In our community and on this forum, we are all dedicated to imagining and designing alternatives — but the real brick wall is not our ability to imagine and design in careful and exquisite detail what would be good and beautiful — it is to emplace our proposals in a culture that does not even seem to know how to value them, let alone desire them and support them.

I like Venice in Italy and have been there, and, in parallel, I ever been in Venice, California. The relation between the two cities is instructive. Venice, California is four times bigger than the original, but, though interesting, nowhere near as rich in wonder as La Serenissima. One is a human treasure. The other is pleasant beach-town with an unusual origin. Venice, California started off, as an effort to create a Venice-of-America, not from any organic will of its citizens, but as a business proposition.

Even where a tangible effort was made to build a timidly unusual city, a hybrid of America and Venice-Italy, and even with a strong and clear precedent in mind, the value system of the society it was built within and for could not support what was offered. Venice-of-America was not culturally sustainable because people simply did not care enough to keep it going. The original Venetians had lesser technology but stronger urban values, and they consciously named their city after Venus, goddess of beauty, and then made every effort to make it beautiful. There are places in Venice-Italy where five bridges (almost) intersect. One would have been enough, but five, in counterpoint, are more beautiful, and, though more costly then as now, those people chose beauty. All we seem to know to do now is consume beauty, as tourists, not make it, at least at the level of urban will and the public realm. Until we address this, we will do the same with technology, and the hybrid city will not be what we really wish it to be.

The problem of the city is the problem of “us” — of how we construct ourselves as a community and a public and how we come to value and build the public good. It is the “demos” in democracy. In these troubled times, it may be the most important question of all.

We need to put in a Cloud technologies that allow new actors (avatar) to explore social and spatial relationships between people in motion, as a fiction media player living in a virtual world economy in revenue sharing business model based, he/her will travel on great distances in a blink of an eye, that will help leaders.

For me evolution is equal at profits.

You need to help your scientist to find cure for diseases, help your body and helping you to preserve your planet’s best precious resources.

Many are the pieces of the chorography Jigsaw puzzle. One day with this help based in a competition, million of brain growing and together will ship the future of human kind Social Media & Social Semantic Search Engine Community Competition

You know that:

  • By 2011 Gen Y will outnumber
  • 96% of them have joined a Social network
  • Social Media has overtaken porn as the #1 activity on the web
  • 1 of 8 couples married in the U.S. last year met via social media
  • Years to reach 50 million users:
  • Radio:              38 Years
  • TV:                  13 years
  • Internet:           4 Years
  • IPod:                3 Years
  • Facebook added 100 million users in less than 9 month

IF facebook were a country it would be the world’s 4th largest:

1) China

2) India

3) U.S.

4) Facebook

5) Indonesia

6) Brazil

7) Pakistan

8) Bangladesh

80% of twitter users usage is on mobile device: People update anywhere, anytime.

What happens in Vegas stays on facebook, myspace, twitter, youtube, linkedin, etc.?

  • Youtube is the 2nd largest search engine in the world.
  • There are over Blogs
  • 54% of bloggers post content or tweet daily

We are in a Word of mouth.

  • 25% of search results for the world’s top 20 largest brand are links to user generated content.
  • 34% of bloggers post options about products & brand.

Do you like what they are saying about your brand?

Or better to say…

Do you like how they are using your brand?


People care more about how their social graph ranks products and services than how Google ranks them.

  • 78% of consumers trust peer recommendation’s
  • Only 14% trust advertisements

“It’s the dream of Money, Business Relation and ‘dating’
driving economy”

The development is made and driven by users as well by technologies; Social media change from user to a user creation of content. We need to transform the traditional (web 2.0) way to create content, generate content, and make networking, business connection and community building, as well cloud business.

The amount of users of demanding content is going faster and faster, internet is departing from computer, today more than one billion users of mobile already have the opportunity to access to internet. And this number will grow to 4 billion in the next few years as well internet computer with more than 3 billions from the actual 1.3 billions.

New technologies his changing the way we are using the net, intelligent devices, clothes, machine, role player game, fridge and factory are connected and interact automatically without direct human involvements. These will revolution the consumer market as the Internet becomes the fundamental economic instrument and consumer will depend entirely from network services and business will depend entirely from the Internet to provide these services.

Hybrid city are growth drivers for the economy.

Hybrid City & Knowledge Cluster as Web Interface of Cloud Computing & Web 3.0?

Thank you for reading it,

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The prove that +1 Google Button is Stolen and Copied concept.


On Saturday, 27 May 2010 my company, Thunderzone Ventures Ltd, sign with Mr. Nadeem Ahmed, Sr. Product Manager of Google and Advisor of ifest an NDA (Non Discloser Agreement) for the reason that Mr. Nadeem Ahmed want to know full details about my 5 years web 3.0 research based on +1 concept. for the purpose that they want to incapsulate it into an agreement between my company and iFest and than offer it to Google Inc. for a new venture and investment. The purpose of Mr. Nadeem Ahmed was to give to google inc the solution to block facebook in his escalation on the market. Many time Mr. Nadeem Ahmed declare that Google Inc want a solution to see facebook dead. 

After I share all and full technical details (here only a part of course) of my technologies based on +1, around end of may 2010 Mr. Nadeem Ahmed as well President of iFest Mr. Mike Snyder (I also sign  an NDA with the him), totally disappear, they find excuse that they are not able to come to cyprus to find me, they dont want to continue talking by skype or email… the completely stop talking with me.
Behind the new proposal of Google +1 Button there is a stolen intellectual property right. 

I discover it only few hours before, I already write an email to press@google.com, legal@google.com as well nahmed1999@gmail.com for an explanation, for now i did not receive any feedback from them.

I am an Internet Old Entrepreneur, an online marketer with a great vision as well I am developing the solution that aim to reward people that generate content on social network, I really dont believe that a so big company like google is going around the web an fuck totally people, researcher and scientist, they are going all over the web, promising money and than they disappear.

+1 Research cost me a lot, five entire years of job for web 3.0, almost 500.000 euro investment. Now what i can say to see my concept on the market ? As a marketer, be sure from now the war start against Google. I am very up sad and disappointed how the market is going, where is the professional side of the company? Google need to steal to fuck facebook?

This is the first articles that i publish, in the next few hours i will know more, my lawyer is already informed also professional journalist close to me: the war against google start now. 

Be update, follow me on Twitter, join the free and open group on Linkedin, like the page on Facebook

Any comment are welcome.
Paolo Pomponi

“Creativity is the ability to illustrate what is outside the box from within the box”


Following discussions with both Albert Einstein and Wolfgang Pauli Jung believed that there were parallels between synchronicity and aspects of relativity theory and quantum mechanics…

Our World - Digital Media & Connected Content

Our World – Digital Media & Connected Content

Me, I am Universe A !!!

Nice to meet you Universe B !!!

We NOW intersect ?

(IC + XC) / IP = W


So you here… we are both actors living in my Social Semantic Hybrid City Social Semantic Search Engine Competition Theory!!!
A Community of AD-Click that work in
Revenue Sharing (Affiliate Marketing) Business Model.

A and B  now are in digital intersecting that can generate a White Hole Parallel Universe  or a fountain of White Hole.

You are now reading my Social Semantic Search Engine Competition theory.

A Web Database Architecture, a Web Application, a concept for a new Social Structure made up by individuals and organizations , which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige..

Parallel Universe A Intersect B. IP automatically generates words

Parallel Universe A Intersect B. IP automatically generates words

My concept targets to build a Social Semantic Search Engine Competition, it use Parallel Universe Theory relation between communicator (IC) and receptor (XC), proposing a new communication model (IP) that via CR create a set of digital content (+1=?), an Avatar Digital World that output in Internet, Mobile, Interactive TV, Cinema Movie Sequel, Game Console Sequel, Magazine and Radio.

There is a general idea where the WORD living in it’s own dimension before its etymology. My name is a word and also apple is a a word. M name is frequently used, apple can be a fruit or a computer.

Internet social network as a net of excursion with daily structured activities and continue registration, an migration of human been that will join and live together in a different parallel universe. Each trip can intersect others generating a new white hole, striking energy, arising content.

These cosmic Phenomena, in Einstein’s theory of relativity, arise from the death of a star, after it collapse in on itself under the force of its own gravity, so intense that even light cannot escape the gravitational field (hence in the name of the black hole).

My theory is based in a cosmopolitanism age-old normative ideal which contends that all members are cosmopolitan; all citizens of the social network world share a membership in one single community, which is governed by a universal, egalitarian law and reliable algorithm that govern the chances in the competition.

32% of Professional don't know !!!

A Parallel Universe Semantic Game Theory


Semantic and Artificial Intelligence

The natural evolution of the Electronic Digital Economy

There is a general idea that games can teach skills that are important in today’s society, namely: analytical thinking, construction of hypotheses, development of strategies, creativity, team building, multitasking, decision making and problem solving. This idea frequently extends to situations that involve some kind of stress and require fast decisions. On the other hand, there is a perception that e-learning can benefit from games, especially because they can make complex subjects more interesting and are able to cope with up-and-coming learning profiles.

Human beings are able to function because they can receive information from the environment via the user interface, store information for later retrieval, and process information in various ways, including using it to anticipate events and make predictions. Humans function best in familiar environments because they can draw upon their vast stores of personal knowledge (their rich mental schema) about those environments. Representations of mental schema for personal or episodic knowledge include many different kinds of elements including concepts (ideas corresponding to things, actions, beliefs, judgments, etc.), associations, relations, attribute, images, sensory perceptions, emotions, a sense of time and an awareness of context. These elements are linked in a complex web of verbal and non-verbal information (Anderson, 1990).

Dan Brown’s thriller has sold over eighteen million copies in hardcover edition (not to mention the paperback edition) It has been and with what ‘a genuine publishing phenomenon. Like all phenomena, has created a gold rush, where authors and publishers have used their success by multiplying the dummy and books on related issues.

All the detail and information set out in this blog are the results of my experiences and lived facts in my personal Holodynamic World. Nothing is based on gossip, but by knowledge and consciousness. There is many other factors (reflection) influence the rhythms of a nature that are linked with human bio-rhythms, the activity of sunspots, the radiation of space and earth, the rising of a star (new friendship … new relation … new structured activities) which influences our black hole dimension, others black hole dimension, a shared parallel universe (relation with others people) !!!

The evolving of Social Network



The theory is based in acosmopolitanism age-old normative ideal which contends that all members are cosmopolitan; all citizens of the social network world share a membership in one single community, which is governed by a universal, egalitarian law and reliable algorithm that govern the chances in the competition.


With a seemingly endless stream of new books on the subject of the end of the Mayan Calendar (and one very scary disaster film), everyone wants to know about 2012! Are we at the beginning of the most amazing and wonderful time on earth?  Or is Armageddon just over the horizon?

Now in the recent mold of intensely stimulating documentary films that have produced new levels of insight and excitement about life. Count Titus Pomponius brings you what may be the most far-reaching entry yet:
A Visions for the Parallel Universe .

Parallel Universe A and B Intersect IP generating Word.

Parallel Universe A and B Intersect IP generating Word.

Here is a must-see exploration of science-based evidence that I am at the precipice of the greatest evolutionary jump in human history with a great vision, that generates privileged and intensely energy!!!

How does a black hole form?
How powerful can a magnetic field be?
How Semantic of Web will satisfy the needs of people?
How Internet evolving?

As we are all energy, a set of vibration living in a dimensional imagination: in a our black hole. Our black hole is our dimension, our dimension can intersect every seconds of our internet life other’s black hole that generating a fountain of white hole: shared activities.

Internet Is a net of pilgrimage, an immigration of human been (vibration) that will live together in a different parallel universe. Each trip can intersect others generating a new white hole, striking energy, arising content.

These cosmic Phenomena, in Einstein’s theory of relativity, arise from the death of a star, after it collapse in on itself under the force of  its own gravity, so intense that even light cannot escape the gravitational field (hence in the name of the black hole).

My Vision and concept is a  theory based in a cosmopolitanism age-old normative ideal which contends that all members are cosmopolitan, all citizens of the internet world  share a membership in one single community, which is governed by a universal, egalitarian law and reliable algorithm that govern the chances in the competition.

Infinite + 1 = ?

Infinite + 1 = ?

FEE Φ-Digital World is a set of Logic and Mathematics Viral Processes working between

Internet, Mobile, Interactive TV, Cinema Movie Sequel, Game Console Sequel, Magazine and Radio.

Φ Semantic-Interactive-Puzzle-Game-Avatar-Storyboard is a logic, intuitive, natural and progress of the love story between Helen (342 woman), George (343 man) alive in the Universe of Miter, kingdom of Demeter (324) in the temple of Menorah.

Every Φ collect he’s own Avatar-Story-Board via CR


The role of James Cameron’s film Avatar in this development is undeniable. What is paradoxical about this pleasantly ecological film is that it is in fact itself, the terrible weapon of the logic that it illustrates: the destructive efficiency of technologies once blindly unleashed on traditional environments.

Social Semantic Search Engine Competition. Semantic by Member!!!

Social Semantic Search Engine Competition. Semantic by Member!!!

word dimension (black hole) etymology

word dimension (black hole) etymology

Social Network Structured Activities Parallel Universe

Social Network Structured Activities Parallel Universe




The Muse of Epic Poetry.

In the heavens of Indra god, there is said to be a network of pearl, so arranged if you look at one you see all the others reflected in it. In the same way, each object in the world is not merely itself but involves other object and in fact everything else’s.

In Every particle of dust there are present number.

Read the Sacred Book knowing that, they don’t want to be interpreted from who, busy in other business, or because some time read or listen about it, but from who with an honest and simply heart, care and love, with hard passion and without sleeping, search and deeply read for understand what the sacred books say.

Many people interpreting the character of Christianity see it as one of the numerous philosophies and religion known from antiquity. Certainly Christianity is not a philosophy in the sense that prevails today. Philosophy sets up a system of tought which is most cases bears no relationship to life. The main difference between Christianity and philosophy is that the latter is human thinking, while Christianity is a revelation of God.

It is not a discovery by man but a revelation by God himself to man.

It was impossible for human logic to find the truths of Christianity.

St. John Chrysostom, interpreting Isaia 3,1

‘Behold the Lord, the Lord of Hosts, takes away from Jerusalem and from Judah… the might man and the soldier, the judge and the prophet, the diviner…’ observes:

‘ He seems here to be calling a diviner a person who is capable of conjecturing the future through profound intelligence and experience of things’.

Divining and prophesying are indeed two different things: the prophet, setting self aside, speaks under divine inspiration; the diviner for his part starts from what has already happened, puts his own intelligence to work and foresees many future events, as an intelligent person normally does.

But the difference between them is great: it is the distance that separates human intelligence from divine grace.

So speculation ( or philosophy) is one thing, and prophecy, or the word of the prophet who theologies, is another.

The former is a human activity while the latter is a revelation of the holy spirit.

Now I saw a new heaven and new earth,
for the first heaven and the first earth
had passed away.

Also there was no more sea.
There shall be no night there:
They need no lamp nor light of the sun,
for the lord God gives them light.
And they shall reign forever and ever.

And i will give power
to my two witnesses,
and they will prophesy
one thousand two hundred and sixty days.

… whose names are not written in the
book of life
from the foundation of the world,
when they see
the beast that was,
and is not,
and, yet is.

Then he said to me,
the waters which you saw,
where the harlot sits, are people, multitudes,
and tongues.

Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword,
that with it He should strike the nations.
And He
will rule them
with a rod of iron.

Assuredly, i say to you,
this generation will by no means
pass away
till all things take place.
Heaven and Earth will pass away,
but my words will by no means pass away

Behold, I am coming quickly !
Blessed is he who keeps the words of
the prophecy of this book.

He shall speak pompous words
against the most high,
shall persecute, and yes it is and is not, the saints
of the Most High, and shall
intend to change
times and law.

Do not think that I come to
destroy the law, or the
prophets. I do not come to
destroy, but tu fulfil.

Psychopompos – ‘soul conductor’



Psychopomp: literally, ‘soul conductor’, an escort to the afterlife. In Jungian psychology, the mediator between conscious and unconscious minds. He came in a recurring nightmare between years four and twelve, was forgotten, then remembered again at twenty in paintings and prints, a costume, and a film.
Bogeyman, muse, and friend; all that we dream is only another part of ourselves.

Psychopomps (from the Greek word ψυχοπομπός (psychopompos), literally meaning the “guide of souls”) are creatures, spirits, angels, or deities in many religions whose responsibility is to escort newly-deceased souls to the afterlife.

Their role is not to judge the deceased, but simply provide safe passage. Frequently depicted on funerary art, psychopomps have been associated at different times and in different cultures with horses, whippoorwills, ravens, dogs, crows, owls, sparrows, cuckoos, and harts.

In Jungian psychology, the psychopomp is a mediator between the unconscious and conscious realms. It is symbolically personified in dreams as a wise man (or woman), or sometimes as a helpful animal. In many cultures, the shaman also fulfills the role of the psychopomp.

This may include not only accompanying the soul of the dead, but also vice versa: to help at birth, to introduce the newborn’s soul to the world (p. 36 of [1]). This also accounts for the contemporary title of “midwife to the dying,” which is another form of psychopomp work.

Pompous Pumpu


Pumpu Pompous Pompa Pomponius Pomponi Pompey, Pompeii, Pompeia, Psychopomp

Pompous it is a Mystery Man of the History of Rome, in the time of Pompey the Great.

Pompous, Pumpu, Pompa, Pomponius, Pomponi, Pompeii, Pompey, Pomponii, Pomponia, Pomp

and Psychopomp ?

or Pompa or Procession:
Pompeian tomb evidence shows the munus as a civic and religious rite sponsored by a magistrate as editor. A procession (pompa) entered the arena led by the editors lictors bearing fasces to signify his power over life and death.

They were followed by a small band of tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to sanctify the pompa.

Etymology of Pompous.
Middle English, from Old French pompeux, from Latin pompa.

Gladiatorial games
A 5th century CE mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople depicts two venatores fighting a tiger.
Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games.[1][2] In the late 1st century BCE Nicolaus of Damascus believed they were Etruscan.[3] A generation later, Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BCE by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites.[4] Long after the games had ceased, the 7th century CE writer Isidore of Seville derived Latin lanista (manager of gladiators) from the Etruscan for executioner, and the title of Charon (an official who accompanied the dead from the Roman gladiatorial arena) from Charun, psychopomp of the Etruscan underworld.[5] Roman historians emphasised the gladiator games as a foreign import, most likely Etruscan. This preference informed most standard histories of the Roman games in the early modern era.

Pompeian tomb evidence shows the munus as a civic and religious rite sponsored by a magistrate as editor. A procession (pompa) entered the arena led by the editors lictors bearing fasces to signify his power over life and death. They were followed by a small band of tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to sanctify the pompa, followed by a scribe (to record the outcome) and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors. The editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; more musicians followed then horses. The gladiators presumably came in last.[144]

Comic History of Rome Titus threatening Pomponius


Image by John Leech, from: The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott A Beckett.

Bradbury, Evans & Co, London, 1850s

Titus threatening Pomponius

Date c. 1850
Source: Posner Library
Author John Leech

Numa Pompilius & Pompous. The Second King Of Roma


Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC; king of Rome, 717-673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

numa pompilio

life and reign

Numa Pompilius came into the world the year that Rome was founded, and was the longest liver of all the male patrician children born in that year. Such being the law of the Tuscan Saeculum, that its first duration in any state should be always determined by the longest liver amongst the patricians who were born at the precise time of its establishment. The Latin and Sabine Senators chose Numa Pompilius to be king, and the united curiae of Romans, Querites and Luceres, confirmed the election. His name of Pumpili or Pumpu is Etruscan, and was Latinized afterwords into Pompilius and Pomponius. According to the Tuscan and Sabine customs of annexing the mother’s name , we believe Pumpu to have been the name of Numa’s mother.

According to Pompey the Great: a political biography, Pompous was also used as a name, for that reason can be linked to the root of Pumpu , Pomponius, Pompey, Pomponi. … make his way to Luceria, bringing with him a total of twenty-six cohort, to be closely followed by a further five under the command of Pompous‘ cousin.

Plutarch tells that Numa was the youngest of Pomponius’ four sons, born on the day of Rome’s founding (traditionally, 21 April 753 BC). He lived a severe life of discipline and banished all luxury from his home. Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines and a colleague of Romulus, married his only daughter, Tatia, to Numa. After 13 years of marriage, Tatia died, precipitating Numa’s retirement to the country. According to Livy, Numa resided at Cures immediately before being elected king .
Livy refers to and discredits the story that Numa was instructed in philosophy by Pythagoras.
Plutarch reports that some authors credited him with only a single daughter, Pompilia, others also gave him five sons, Pompo (or Pomponius), Pinus, Calpus, Mamercus and Numa, from whom the noble families of the Pomponii, Pinarii, Calpurnii, Aemilii, and Pompilii respectively traced their descent. Other writers believed that this was merely a flattery invented to curry favour with those families. Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa’s first wife Tatia or his second wife Lucretia, supposedly married a certain Marcius and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius.
In 717 BC, after the death of Romulus, Numa was elected by the Roman Senate to be the next king.
According to Plutarch he at first he refused, however his father and kinsmen persuaded him to accept. Livy recounts how Numa, after being summoned by the Senate from Cures, requested an augur to divine the opinion of the gods on the prospect of his kingship. Jupiter was consulted and the omens were favourable ..
One of Numa’s first acts was the construction of a temple of Janus as an indicator of peace and war. The temple was constructed at the foot of the Argiletum, a road in the city. After securing peace with Rome’s neighbours, the doors of the temples were shut .
Numa was later celebrated for his natural wisdom and piety; legend says the nymph Egeria taught him to be a wise legislator. According to Livy, Numa pretended that he held nightly consultations with the goddess Egeria on the proper manner of instituting sacred rites for the city [5]. Wishing to show his favour, the god Jupiter caused a shield to fall from the sky on the Palatine Hill, which had letters of prophecy written on it, and in which the fate of Rome as a city was tied up. Recognizing the importance of this sacred shield, King Numa had eleven matching shields made. These shields were the ancilia, the sacred shields of Jupiter, which were carried each year in a procession by the Salii priests. He established the office and duties of Pontifex Maximus and instituted the flamines of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Numa also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa .
By tradition, Numa promulgated a calendar reform that adjusted the solar and lunar years, introducing the months of January and February.
In other Roman institutions established by Numa, Plutarch thought he detected a Laconian influence, attributing the connection to the Sabine culture of Numa, for “Numa was descended of the Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians.”
Numa was credited with dividing the immediate territory of Rome into pagi and establishing the traditional occupational guilds of Rome:
“So, distinguishing the whole people by the several arts and trades, he formed the companies of musicians, goldsmiths, carpenters, dyers, shoemakers, skinners, braziers, and potters; and all other handicraftsmen he composed and reduced into a single company, appointing every one their proper courts, councils, and religious observances.” (Plutarch)
Plutarch, in like manner, tells of the early religion of the Romans, that it was imageless and spiritual. He says Numa “forbade the Romans to represent the deity in the form either of man or of beast. Nor was there among them formerly any image or statue of the Divine Being; during the first one hundred and seventy years they built temples, indeed, and other sacred domes, but placed in them no figure of any kind; persuaded that it is impious to represent things Divine by what is perishable, and that we can have no conception of God but by the understanding”.
Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. He was succeeded by Tullus Hostilius.

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