Archive for the ‘pomponius’ Category

Psychopompos – ‘soul conductor’



Psychopomp: literally, ‘soul conductor’, an escort to the afterlife. In Jungian psychology, the mediator between conscious and unconscious minds. He came in a recurring nightmare between years four and twelve, was forgotten, then remembered again at twenty in paintings and prints, a costume, and a film.
Bogeyman, muse, and friend; all that we dream is only another part of ourselves.

Psychopomps (from the Greek word ψυχοπομπός (psychopompos), literally meaning the “guide of souls”) are creatures, spirits, angels, or deities in many religions whose responsibility is to escort newly-deceased souls to the afterlife.

Their role is not to judge the deceased, but simply provide safe passage. Frequently depicted on funerary art, psychopomps have been associated at different times and in different cultures with horses, whippoorwills, ravens, dogs, crows, owls, sparrows, cuckoos, and harts.

In Jungian psychology, the psychopomp is a mediator between the unconscious and conscious realms. It is symbolically personified in dreams as a wise man (or woman), or sometimes as a helpful animal. In many cultures, the shaman also fulfills the role of the psychopomp.

This may include not only accompanying the soul of the dead, but also vice versa: to help at birth, to introduce the newborn’s soul to the world (p. 36 of [1]). This also accounts for the contemporary title of “midwife to the dying,” which is another form of psychopomp work.


Pompous Pumpu


Pumpu Pompous Pompa Pomponius Pomponi Pompey, Pompeii, Pompeia, Psychopomp

Pompous it is a Mystery Man of the History of Rome, in the time of Pompey the Great.

Pompous, Pumpu, Pompa, Pomponius, Pomponi, Pompeii, Pompey, Pomponii, Pomponia, Pomp

and Psychopomp ?

or Pompa or Procession:
Pompeian tomb evidence shows the munus as a civic and religious rite sponsored by a magistrate as editor. A procession (pompa) entered the arena led by the editors lictors bearing fasces to signify his power over life and death.

They were followed by a small band of tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to sanctify the pompa.

Etymology of Pompous.
Middle English, from Old French pompeux, from Latin pompa.

Gladiatorial games
A 5th century CE mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople depicts two venatores fighting a tiger.
Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games.[1][2] In the late 1st century BCE Nicolaus of Damascus believed they were Etruscan.[3] A generation later, Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BCE by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites.[4] Long after the games had ceased, the 7th century CE writer Isidore of Seville derived Latin lanista (manager of gladiators) from the Etruscan for executioner, and the title of Charon (an official who accompanied the dead from the Roman gladiatorial arena) from Charun, psychopomp of the Etruscan underworld.[5] Roman historians emphasised the gladiator games as a foreign import, most likely Etruscan. This preference informed most standard histories of the Roman games in the early modern era.

Pompeian tomb evidence shows the munus as a civic and religious rite sponsored by a magistrate as editor. A procession (pompa) entered the arena led by the editors lictors bearing fasces to signify his power over life and death. They were followed by a small band of tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to sanctify the pompa, followed by a scribe (to record the outcome) and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors. The editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; more musicians followed then horses. The gladiators presumably came in last.[144]

Comic History of Rome Titus threatening Pomponius


Image by John Leech, from: The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott A Beckett.

Bradbury, Evans & Co, London, 1850s

Titus threatening Pomponius

Date c. 1850
Source: Posner Library
Author John Leech

Numa Pompilius & Pompous. The Second King Of Roma


Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC; king of Rome, 717-673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

numa pompilio

life and reign

Numa Pompilius came into the world the year that Rome was founded, and was the longest liver of all the male patrician children born in that year. Such being the law of the Tuscan Saeculum, that its first duration in any state should be always determined by the longest liver amongst the patricians who were born at the precise time of its establishment. The Latin and Sabine Senators chose Numa Pompilius to be king, and the united curiae of Romans, Querites and Luceres, confirmed the election. His name of Pumpili or Pumpu is Etruscan, and was Latinized afterwords into Pompilius and Pomponius. According to the Tuscan and Sabine customs of annexing the mother’s name , we believe Pumpu to have been the name of Numa’s mother.

According to Pompey the Great: a political biography, Pompous was also used as a name, for that reason can be linked to the root of Pumpu , Pomponius, Pompey, Pomponi. … make his way to Luceria, bringing with him a total of twenty-six cohort, to be closely followed by a further five under the command of Pompous‘ cousin.

Plutarch tells that Numa was the youngest of Pomponius’ four sons, born on the day of Rome’s founding (traditionally, 21 April 753 BC). He lived a severe life of discipline and banished all luxury from his home. Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines and a colleague of Romulus, married his only daughter, Tatia, to Numa. After 13 years of marriage, Tatia died, precipitating Numa’s retirement to the country. According to Livy, Numa resided at Cures immediately before being elected king .
Livy refers to and discredits the story that Numa was instructed in philosophy by Pythagoras.
Plutarch reports that some authors credited him with only a single daughter, Pompilia, others also gave him five sons, Pompo (or Pomponius), Pinus, Calpus, Mamercus and Numa, from whom the noble families of the Pomponii, Pinarii, Calpurnii, Aemilii, and Pompilii respectively traced their descent. Other writers believed that this was merely a flattery invented to curry favour with those families. Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa’s first wife Tatia or his second wife Lucretia, supposedly married a certain Marcius and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius.
In 717 BC, after the death of Romulus, Numa was elected by the Roman Senate to be the next king.
According to Plutarch he at first he refused, however his father and kinsmen persuaded him to accept. Livy recounts how Numa, after being summoned by the Senate from Cures, requested an augur to divine the opinion of the gods on the prospect of his kingship. Jupiter was consulted and the omens were favourable ..
One of Numa’s first acts was the construction of a temple of Janus as an indicator of peace and war. The temple was constructed at the foot of the Argiletum, a road in the city. After securing peace with Rome’s neighbours, the doors of the temples were shut .
Numa was later celebrated for his natural wisdom and piety; legend says the nymph Egeria taught him to be a wise legislator. According to Livy, Numa pretended that he held nightly consultations with the goddess Egeria on the proper manner of instituting sacred rites for the city [5]. Wishing to show his favour, the god Jupiter caused a shield to fall from the sky on the Palatine Hill, which had letters of prophecy written on it, and in which the fate of Rome as a city was tied up. Recognizing the importance of this sacred shield, King Numa had eleven matching shields made. These shields were the ancilia, the sacred shields of Jupiter, which were carried each year in a procession by the Salii priests. He established the office and duties of Pontifex Maximus and instituted the flamines of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Numa also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa .
By tradition, Numa promulgated a calendar reform that adjusted the solar and lunar years, introducing the months of January and February.
In other Roman institutions established by Numa, Plutarch thought he detected a Laconian influence, attributing the connection to the Sabine culture of Numa, for “Numa was descended of the Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians.”
Numa was credited with dividing the immediate territory of Rome into pagi and establishing the traditional occupational guilds of Rome:
“So, distinguishing the whole people by the several arts and trades, he formed the companies of musicians, goldsmiths, carpenters, dyers, shoemakers, skinners, braziers, and potters; and all other handicraftsmen he composed and reduced into a single company, appointing every one their proper courts, councils, and religious observances.” (Plutarch)
Plutarch, in like manner, tells of the early religion of the Romans, that it was imageless and spiritual. He says Numa “forbade the Romans to represent the deity in the form either of man or of beast. Nor was there among them formerly any image or statue of the Divine Being; during the first one hundred and seventy years they built temples, indeed, and other sacred domes, but placed in them no figure of any kind; persuaded that it is impious to represent things Divine by what is perishable, and that we can have no conception of God but by the understanding”.
Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. He was succeeded by Tullus Hostilius.

Julius Pomponius Laetus


Julius Pomponius Laetus
Julius Pomponius Laetus, also known as Giulio Pomponio Leto, (1425 – 1498) was an Italian humanist, archaeologist, and Latinist who promoted the revival of ancient Roman classics and the traditions they represented. From his youth, he devoted himself to the study of Roman antiquity, and refused to learn Greek because he feared it would adversely influence his Latin style. He was a popular teacher and educated many of the great scholars of his period. He wrote treatises on archeology, the Roman magistrates, priests, and lawyers, a compendium of Roman history, and commentaries on classical authors, as well as producing numerous translations.

Laetus tried to emulate the lives of the ancient Romans, and around 1457, established the Academia Romana, a semi-secret academy dedicated to the study of antiquities and to promoting the adoption of ancient customs into modern life.

Its members adopted Greek and Latin names, met on the Quirinal to discuss classical questions and celebrated ancient Roman rites and festivals. In 1468, Laetus and twenty of the academicians were arrested, imprisoned and tortured by the order of Pope Paul II, who viewed the academy with suspicion, as promoting paganism, heresy, and republicanism. The following year, the members of the Academia were acquitted for lack of evidence and Laetus was allowed to resume his teaching duties; after the accession of Pope Sixtus IV, who also admired ancient Rome, the Academia Romana was allowed to resume its activities, which continued until 1572.

Pomponius Enchiridion. The sources of Roman law


The evaluation of Pomponius’s text has followed roughly two
paths: text criticism, which has sought to uncover the true uncorrupted
form of the text, and source criticism, which examined Pomponius’s
position and his reliability as a historical sourc

Pomponius (Enchiridion) take, for example, religion as observed towards God ; or the duty of submission to parents and country; …

Definition of Enchiridion

C. JU VE’NTIUS, a Roman jurist, one of the numerous auditores of Q. Mucius, P. f. Scaevola, the Pontifex Maximus. He is mentioned by Pom- ponius along with Aquilius Gallus, Balbus Lucilius, and Sextus. Papirius, as one of the four most emi nent pupils of Mucius. Nothing more is known of him. His works possessed high authority, and were incorporated by Servius Sulpicius in his own writings. In the time of Pomponius, the original productions of the disciples of Mucius were scarce, and were known chiefly through the books of Servius Sulpicius. (Dig. i. tit. 2. s. 2. § 42.) [J.T. G.]

T. JUVE’NTIUS, an advocate, who was much employed in private causes. He was a slow and rather cold speaker, but a wily disputant. He pos sessed considerable legal knowledge, as did also his disciple Q. Orbius, who was a contemporary of Cicero. (Brut. 48.) Ch. Ad. Ruperti thinks that the T. Juventius mentioned by Cicero is the same with the disciple of Mucius, to whom Pomponius gives the praenomen Caius. (Aniinad. inEnchirid Pomponii, iii. 8.) [J. T. G.]

From the foundation of Rome to the Twelve Tables

Our knowledge of this period is largely conjectural, from data furnished by the subsequent period. Roman history begins with pure myth and fable, then passes through a stage of blended fable and fact, and finally becomes history properly so called. The history of Roman Law has no vital interest with the petty communities and subordinate nationalities that were finally absorbed in the three ethnological elements, Latin, Sabine, and Etruscan, with which the dawn of Rome’s legal history begins.
Of these three elements the Etruscan was more advanced in civilization, with definite religious and political institutions (Ortolan). The only Etruscan text we have is that of the nymph Vegoia (lasa Veku), which recognizes the right of property and protects it with the wrath of the gods (Casati).
It is customary to speak of certain leges in the earliest historical period as leges regiœ: whether these were real statutes enacted during the regal period or the mere formulation of customary law is disputed (Bruns, introd. note to “Leges Regiœ” in “Fontes Jur. Rom. Antiqui”). There were some well established, though crude and radical, rules of private law, such as the harsh paternal power and the equally drastic right of the creditor over his unfortunate debtor. It may safely be affirmed that during this primitive period customary law was the only law.

Pomponius says: “At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law and without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically by kings” (2, §1. D. 1. 2). In the next paragraph he speaks of the so-called leges regiœ as collected and still extant in the book of Sextus Papirius. Again, after the expulsion of the kings the people resorted to customary law. The great mass of historical facts prove that there was no private law other than custom down until this period closed with the enactment of the Twelve Tables (Stædtler). The lack of a precise definition of their rights was the principal grievance of the plebeians, and in A. U. C. 292 their tribune, Terentilius Arsa, proposed the nomination of magistrates to formulate written laws. In 303 decemvirs were appointed, and they agreed upon ten tables during the first year of their magistracy, and two additional tables the second year. The political object sought by the plebeians, namely, the fusing of both classes into one, was not attained: private rights, however, were given definite form. These laws of the Twelve Tables contained the elements from which, in process of time, the vast edifice of private law was developed.

Pomponius (Enchiridion) Accordingly it seems requisite to set forth the origin and development of law itself. 1. Now at the time of the origin of our state the citizens at large (populus) undertook at first to proceed without fixed statutes or any fixed law at all, and everything was regulated by the direct control of the kings. 2. After that, the state being more or less enlarged, the tradition is that Romulus himself divided the body
of the citizens into thirty parts, which parts he called curiai, for the reason that he exercised his care (euro) of the commonwealth in accordance with the opinions of the parts referred to. Accord-ingly he himself proposed to the people certain curiate statutes, and the kings that succeeded him did the same thing ; all which statutes exist in writing in the book of Sextus Papirus. A part also on that research Book

Pomponius Enchiridion

Publius Pomponius Secundus


PUBLIUS POMPONIUS SECUNDUS, Roman general and tragic poet, lived during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius.

He was on intimate terms with the elder Pliny, who wrote a biography of him (now lost). The chief authority for his life is Tacitus, according to whom Secundus was a man of refinement and brilliant intellect.

His friendship with Sejanus and his brother made him politically suspect, and he only escaped death by remaining practically a prisoner in his own brother’s house until the accession of Caligula.

During his enforced retirement he composed tragedies, which were put on the stage during the reign of Claudius. In A.D. 50 he distinguished himself against the Chat ti and obtained the honour of the triumphal insignia. Quintilian asserts that he was far superior to any writer of tragedies he had known, and Tacitus expresses a high opinion of his literary abilities. Secundus devoted much attention to the niceties of grammar and style, on which he was recognized as an. authority. Only a few lines of his work remain, some of which belong to the tragedy Aeneas. See O. Ribbeck, Geschichte der romischen Dichtung, iii. (1892).

and Tragicorum Romanorum fragmenta (1897); Tacitus, Annals, v. 8, xi. 13, xii. 28; Quintilian, Inst. Orat. x. 1.98; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiv. 5; M. Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Literatur, ii. 2 (1900); Teuffel, Hist. of Roman Literature (Eng. trans., 1900), 284, 7.

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